Thanhouser Bibliography


Agnew, Frances. Motion Picture Acting. New York: Reliance Newspaper Syndicate, 1913. The author, an actress, gives information and suggestions concerning acting in films. Among the players quoted at length is Muriel Ostriche, who at the time had just joined Thanhouser.

The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States; Feature Films 1911-1920. Patricia King Hanson, executive editor. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1988. Lists various Thanhouser feature films (defined as four or more reels) of the period indicated, together with new synopses, cast listings, and other information.

The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States; Feature Films 1921-1930. Kenneth W. Munden, executive editor. New York and London: R.R. Bowker Company, 1971.

Ball, Robert Hamilton. Shakespeare on Silent Film. London: George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., 1968. Contains detailed discussions of the several Thanhouser dramatizations of Shakespeares plays, information concerning players, and notes from interviews with Edwin Thanhouser.

Balshofer, Fred J. and Arthur C. Miller. One Reel a Week. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967. Fascinating anecdotes about early silent film production, including eluding the hired ruffians of the Trust.

Behnke, Arno (editor). The Sailing of a Refugee Ship. New York: printed by G. Schirmer, Inc., and privately distributed, 1914. A 78-page illustrated account of the voyage of the Principe di Udine, the refugee ship which transported Edwin Thanhousers family and several hundred others from Genoa to New York City in August 1914.

Bioscope, The. London, England. Various issues 1912-1914. This trade magazine printed information concerning Thanhouser films released in England.

Blum, Daniel. A Pictorial History of the Silent Screen. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1953. A very useful chronology of the silent film in America.

Bowers, Q. David. The Moxie Encyclopedia. Vestal, New York: The Vestal Press, Ltd., 1985. Contains information concerning Thanhouser actress Muriel Ostriche, who was the original Moxie Girl.

Bowers, Q. David. Muriel Ostriche: Princess of Silent Films. Vestal, New York: The Vestal Press, Ltd., 1987. A biography of Muriel Ostriche, who appeared in Thanhouser films 1913-1915 and for whom the Princess Department was created.

Bowers, Q. David. Nickelodeon Theatres and Their Music. Vestal, New York: The Vestal Press, Ltd., 1986. History of early motion picture exhibition in America, especially circa 1896-1916.

Braff, R.E. An Index to the Silent Films of Gladys Hulette. San Francisco: typescript by the author, circa 1985. Copy provided by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

Brown, Karl. Karl Brown on James Cruze. Article, with preface by Kevin Brownlow, in Films in Review, April 1986. National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, New York. Brown relates his own experiences with Cruze and tells of the dark side of the man.

Browne, Walter, and E. DeRoy Koch. Whos Who on The Stage 1908. New York: B.W. Dodge & Company, 1908. Biographies of several prominent stage personalities who later appeared in Thanhouser films.

Brownlow, Kevin. The War, the West and the Wilderness. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979 (© Kevin Brownlow, 1978). A subchapter, beginning on page 281, is devoted to Al Jennings, and information is given concerning the film he supervised for Thanhouser, Beating Back.

Brownlow, Kevin. The Pioneers. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.

Brownlow, Kevin. Notes on Jules Brulatour. Article in Griffithiana, 32-33, September 1988. Gemona (Udine), Italy: La Cineteca del Friuli, 1988.

Cameron, Ruth Martin. Movie Nostalgia in New Rochelle. Letter to the editor of The Standard-Star, October 4, 1987, published as an illustrated article. New Rochelle, New York: Gannett Westchester Newspapers. Discusses the writers recollections of New Rochelle during the time films were made there.

Catalog of Copyright Entries, Cumulative Series. Motion Pictures 1912-1939. Washington: Copyright Office, The Library of Congress, 1951. A listing of films copyrighted during the period indicated. Among Thanhouser films, only Beating Back (1914), the beginning episodes of The Million Dollar Mystery, and the 20 episodes of Zudora (and its retitled continuation) are listed. Note: No Thanhouser films are listed in the predecessor volume: Motion Pictures 1894-1912 Identified from the Records of the United States Copyright Office, by Howard Lamarr Wells, Copyright Office, The Library of Congress, 1953.

Cinema, The. London, England. Various issues 1913-1915. This periodical printed many synopses of films released by Thanhouser Films, Ltd.

Clair, Virginia. Thanhouser, Pioneer in Films, Finds Audiences Critical. Article in The Standard-Star, December 9, 1949. New Rochelle, New York. Edwin Thanhouser reminisces about the days of film making in New Rochelle and gives his opinions of modern productions.

Cohen, Richard M., and David S. Neft. The World Series. New York: Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. Used for certain information pertaining to the 1913 World Series (as featured in the Thanhouser film, The Final Game).

Cruze, Jim and associates. How to Be A Movie Actor or Actress. Chicago: Movie Actors Assn., 1327 Michigan Boulevard, circa 1915. A 64-page promotional booklet suggesting that almost anyone could easily earn a fortune on the screen. The copy used by the author was loaned by Samuel A. Gill.

Davis, Robert H. When Came the Dawn in the Business of the Fillums. Article in the Bob Davis Recalls column in The New York Sun, May 22, 1930. Tells of an interview with Edwin Thanhouser, who was staying at the Charlotte Harbor Hotel in Punta Gorda, Florida, at the same time Thomas A. Edison was visiting there for a day. Thanhouser regaled the reporter with stories of film making years earlier.

Doyle, Billy H. Lost Players column in Classic Images No. 143 (May 1987). Davenport, Iowa. Biographical sketch and filmography of William Garwood, Thanhouser actor.

Doyle, Billy H. Lost Players column in Classic Images No. 146 (August 1987). Davenport, Iowa. Biographical sketch of Marguerite Loveridge (born Marguerite Marsh), Thanhouser actress.

Doyle, Billy H. Lost Players column in Classic Images No. 149 (November 1987). Davenport, Iowa. Biographical sketches and filmographies of the Harry Benham family.

Doyle, Billy H. Lost Players column in Classic Images No. 161 (November 1988). Davenport, Iowa. Biographical sketch of Charlotte Walker.

Evening Mail, The. This New York City newspaper was a source for film reviews and news, particularly for the period 1915-1917. A special Saturday supplement, Motion Picture Mail, was published beginning in September 1915 (see separate bibliography entry).

Evening Standard, The. New Rochelle, New York. Various issues. Official Republican Newspaper of the City of New Rochelle. The New Rochelle Public Library kindly loaned microfilm reels of this publication from the Thanhouser era.

Exchange Notes. New York City: The Mutual Film Corporation, 27 Union Square, 1913 and 1914. These printed brochures were issued intermittently and were sent to those on the mailing list for Reel Life.

Exhibitors Herald. Consulted were issues from January 8, 1916 through the end of 1917. Printed reviews of Thanhouser films.

Exhibitors Trade Review. New York: Exhibitors Trade Review, Inc., 1587 Broadway. Publication of this weekly magazine, Of, for, and by the motion picture exhibitor (per the title page), began on December 9, 1916. A number of reviews of Thanhouser films were carried during the following year.

Feeney, Claudia. Star of Silent Screen Says It Was Fun, article in The Tolucan, February 2, 1983. Toluca Lake, California. Interview with Mignon Anderson.

Films by Huey (James J. Coleman, Jr.). Grace: A Portrait of Grace DeCarlton Ross. Portland, Maine: Films by Huey, 1983. A 16mm film, transferred to videotape, of interviews with Grace DeCarlton, 1979-1983, when the former Thanhouser actress was in her nineties and was a dance instructor in Portland. Clips from several Thanhouser films are shown, and a commentary is provided concerning Miss DeCarltons work with Thanhouser. A typescript of the film provided valuable biographical data concerning the artist.

Films in Review. New York: The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures. This scholarly journal, published since 1950, contained mentions of several Thanhouser personalities, most notably James Cruze.

Florida Metropolis, The. Jacksonville, Florida. On Sundays: The Sunday Metropolis. Jacksonville newspaper. Various issues 1915-1916 contained news articles about Thanhousers Florida activities, including Tracey Hollingsworths gossip column, Flivers [sic] From Film Folk.

Florida Times-Union, The. On Sundays: The Sunday Times-Union. Jacksonville, Florida. Daily and Sunday newspapers. Various issues 1915-1916. Many news articles concerning Thanhousers Jacksonville studio appeared, especially on the Sunday Whats New at the Movies page.

Fulbright, Thomas. The Thanhouser Kidlet, article in Classic Film Collector No. 19, Fall-Winter 1967. Davenport Iowa. Interview with Gerald J. Badgley, father of Helen Badgley, the Thanhouser Kidlet.

Gish, Lillian. The Movies, Mr. Griffith and Me. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. Mentions D.W. Griffiths use of the Thanhouser studio facilities 1919-1920 (p.224).

Graham, Cooper C., Steven Higgins, Elaine Mancini, Joao Luiz Vieira. D.W. Griffith and the Biograph Company. Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1985. With filmographies and other information concerning personalities who at different times worked with Thanhouser, including Joseph Graybill, Florence LaBadie, and others.

Grau, Robert. The Theatre of Science. New York: Broadway Publishing Company, 1914.

Hamm, Margherita Arlina. Eminent Actors in Their Homes. New York: James Pott & Company, 1912. Contains a chapter on The Orchard, the New Rochelle home at the time of stage personality Francis Wilson (and later the House of Mystery for the 1914 Thanhouser serial, The Million Dollar Mystery).

Henderson, Robert M. D.W. Griffith: His Life and Work. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972. Griffiths use of the Thanhouser studio facilities during the winter of 1919-1920 is mentioned on pp. 209-210.

Hines, Dixie and Harry Prescott Hanaford (editors). Whos Who in Music and Drama: An Encyclopedia of Biography of Notable Men and Women in Music and the Drama. New York: H.D. Hanaford, 1914. Extracts from this rare volume were provided to the author by Samuel A. Gill of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Much of the biographical data concerning Riley Chamberlins early life, appearing in the present book, is adapted from this source.

Hoerle, Helen. Harry Benham. New York: Chamberlain Browns Office, 160 West 48th Street, undated. One page typescript, double spaced, biographical notes concerning Harry Benham. (Example in the New York Public Library; Billy Rose Theatre Collection)

Katz, Ephraim. The International Film Encyclopedia. London: Papermac, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1982. Although this volume is primarily concerned with later film personalities, several Thanhouser actors and actresses are listed, including James Cruze and Florence LaBadie.

Lahue, Kalton C. Continued Next Week. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964. This book, about serials, gives some information concerning The Million Dollar Mystery.

Lahue, Kalton C. Bound and Gagged. New York: Castle Books, undated. Reprint from 1968 A.S. Barnes & Co. edition. About serials.

Lauritzen, Einar and Gunnar Lundquist. American Film-Index 1908-1915. Stockholm: Film-Index, 1976. Contains listings of Thanhouser and Princess films and publicity (not release) dates, primarily using information from The Moving Picture World. Some names of directors, cast members, et al are given. (Subsequent correspondence from Gunnar Lundquist disclosed that listings in the book which named Theodore Marston as a Thanhouser director were from an unreliable source and should be disregarded.)

Lauritzen, Einar and Gunnar Lundquist. American Film-Index 1916-1920. Stockholm: Film-Index, 1984. Continuation of information given in the preceding volume. Contains listings of Thanhouser and Princess films and publicity (not release) dates, primarily using information from The Moving Picture World. Some names of directors, cast members, et al are given.

Macgowan, Kenneth. Behind the Screen. New York: Delacorte Press, 1965. General history of the development of the motion picture from the earliest days onward.

Mast, Gerald. A Short History of the Movies. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1976.

McEvoy, Dorothea Lee. THANHOUSER: New Rochelle Sees Pioneers Develop Movie Industry, article in The Standard-Star, New Rochelle, New York, June 13, 1938. A brief history of the Thanhouser film making activities is given, illustrated by four pictures, two of which showed the January 13, 1913 studio fire.

McEvoy, Dorothea Lee. Pioneer in Motion Picture Industry Has Been Actor, Salesman, Producer, article about W. Ray Johnston, in The Standard-Star, New Rochelle, New York, July 9, 1939. A biographical sketch of Johnston illustrated with two incorrectly captioned scenes from Thanhouser films, one of which also showed Morgan Niblack and the other of which showed the Fairbanks twins.

Morning Telegraph, The. New York City. Issues of this daily newspaper were surveyed from February 1910 until December 1917, with the exception of the following issues, which were not located: February 4, 1912, December 26, 1915, February 20, 1916, February 27, 1916, March 1, 1916, June 1, 1916, and August 13, 1916. Over a period of years, column titles, contributing reviewers and writers, etc. changed. In general, the newspaper printed very insightful reviews from 1910 through about 1913. Issues of 1914 and 1915, with some exceptions, contained notices that were primarily abbreviated plot synopses. In 1916 and 1917, detailed critical reviews were given. Gordon Trent, the self-designated gossip columnist of the paper, printed many personal news items acquired from publicity agents and others at the Thanhouser studio. Over a period of time, this newspaper carried many items, mostly of a techinical or trivial nature, which were not duplicated elsewhere in publications surveyed for the present work. All in all, The Morning Telegraph proved to be a rich historical archive.

Motion Picture Mail, a Saturday magazine supplement of The Evening Mail, a New York City newspaper, commenced publication in September 1915 and began film reviews in June 1916. Consulted were the issues from February 1916 through February 1917, on microfilm at the New York Public Library.

Motion Picture News, The. See The Moving Picture News.

Motion Picture News Studio Directory. New York City: Motion Picture News, Inc., October 21, 1916 and April 12, 1917. Also the 1918 and 1919 editions, each titled slightly differently as Motion Picture Studio Directory. (Also see Studio Directory of Motion Picture News, 1916.) Given are brief biographical sketches of hundreds of motion picture personalities. As the dates of work with Thanhouser and the titles of Thanhouser films were provided by players who, sometimes years later, filled out forms provided by the magazine, the issues contain occasional errors. However, each issue is an extremely valuable data source.

Motion Picture Story Magazine, The. New York City (Brooklyn): M.P. Publishing Company. (Name changed to The Motion Picture Magazine, beginning with the March 1914 issue). The Answer Man in his inquiries column often provided cast listings and identifications, but often these were erroneous, and they have been used in the present work only sparingly; in all instances an effort has been made to verify the data with more reliable contemporary sources. In its day, this monthly magazine was responsible more than any other early periodical for the rise of the so-called star system, for it was quickly realized that the personal characteristics and doings of players attracted a wide readership and at the same time increased interest in the players mentioned (with obvious consequences at the box office). The periodical, which was started by J. Stuart Blackton, a member of the Patents Company group, soon modified its editorial stance to include news, stories, etc. about Independent producers as well. Reading this magazine engenders enthusiasm for films, studios, and players of the era and was a pleasure experience for the author in connection with research for the present work. All issues from the Thanhouser era were consulted.

Moving Picture News, The. New York City: The Cinematograph Publishing Company, 30 West 13th Street. The name of this weekly trade journal was changed to The Motion Picture News in autumn 1913. The periodical contains many valuable accounts of films and their production, particularly of the Independent companies.

Moving Picture World, The. New York City: The World Photographic Publishing Company (issues 1907-1912) and The Chalmers Publishing Company (issues 1912-1927). This weekly journal contained more motion picture trade news than any other of its era and was an exceedingly valuable resource.

Mutual Masterpicture News Bulletin. New York City: The Mutual Film Corporation, 1915. Various issues, undated (circa 1915), described current films and gave advertising ideas. The bulletin was printed on newsprint and was mailed with Reel Life.

National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, The. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms, 1967. Reprint of earlier edition; copyright 1958 by James T. White & Co. Furnished biographical data concerning certain financiers and businessmen association with Thanhouser.

Nelson, Al. P. They Made Their Mark in Hollywood. Article in Landmark, quarterly publication of the Waukesha County (Wisconsin) Historical Society, Autumn 1982; Vol. 25, No. 3. Biographical notes and recollections concerning Harry and Roy Aitken.

Nelson, Richard Alan. Florida and the American Motion Picture Industry, 1898-1980. Two volumes. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1984. A superbly researched and written volume which chronicles film making in Florida. The work mentions in passing Thanhousers 1912 filming there, but devotes several pages to Thanhousers 1915-1916 activities in Jacksonville.

New Rochelle Paragraph, The. New Rochelle, New York. Newspaper. Various issues circa 1915.

New Rochelle Pioneer, The. New Rochelle, New York. Newspaper. Various issues 1909-1918. Rick Moody spent many hours reading microfilms at the New Rochelle Public Library, and provided the author with many news items concerning the Thanhouser studio and its players.

New York Clipper, The. New York City. This periodical chronicled the dramatic stage and was a valuable source of information concerning Edwin Thanhousers activities during the 1890s and first decade of the 20th century.

New York Dramatic Mirror, The. New York City: The Dramatic Mirror Company, 145 West 45th Street. Issues of 1910, 1911, through and including January 10, 1912. Although this periodical had a heavy bias toward Patents Company studios, much information concerning Independents appeared as well.

New York Star, The. New York City: New York Star Co., 1493 Broadway. Weekly issues from October 21, 1914 through March 31, 1915 were studied. Elizabeth Lonergan, sister of Lloyd and Philip Lonergan, wrote movie reviews under the name of Wig-Wag for the periodical.

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. Notable PaintingsAll from Institutional or Private Owners. New York City: Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., 980 Madison Avenue. Catalogue of the auction sale held October 17, 1956, featuring paintings consigned by the New York Public Library, the Dr. Walter Timme estate, and the Edwin Thanhouser estate.

Picture-Play Magazine. New York: Street & Smith. Published semi-monthly beginning December 1, 1915; later published monthly. Earlier known as Picture-Play Weekly. An imitator of The Motion Picture Magazine, the periodical printed expanded stories of films and information about players.

Photoplay Magazine, The. (The was later dropped from the title.) Chicago: Photoplay Magazine. In its early years, Photoplay primarily devoted its attention to Independent companies, especially those who supported the publication by advertising. Issues consulted were from the collections of Robert S. Birchard and the Library of Congress.

Photoplay Arts Portfolio of Thanhouser Moving-Picture Stars with Biographies and Autographs. New York City: Photoplay Arts Company, Inc., 1914. Printed booklet of Thanhouser players, with biographies of (in order as presented) Marguerite Snow, James Cruze, Morris Foster, Florence LaBadie, Harry Benham, Mignon Anderson, Helen Badgley, Riley Chamberlin, Madeline and Marion Fairbanks, David H. Thompson, Sidney Bracy, Frank Farrington, Nolan Gane, Irving Cummings, Muriel Ostriche, Carey L. Hastings, and Arthur Richard Bauer. A one-page history of the Thanhouser Film Corporation is given at the end.

Ramsaye, Terry. The Romantic History of the Motion Picture, article in Photoplay Magazine, September 1923. An adaptation of this serialization of the history of films later was published in book form as A Million and One Nights. This particular article contained several paragraphs about the Thanhouser Company, and a copy was saved for that reason by Edwin Thanhouser. The book devoted several pages to a highly romanticized account of the background of the Thanhouser serial, The Million Dollar Mystery.

(Ranous, Rodney) An undated, unattributed clipping, Rodney Ranous Death Raises Old Memories, preserved by Edwin Thanhouser, from a Milwaukee newspaper, circa 1935, told of the death of Ranous, who had joined Thanhousers stock company in Milwaukee in 1906. Included was information concerning members of the stock company at that time.

Reel Life. New York City: Mutual Film Corporation, 27 Union Square. Weekly house organ with information concerning the Mutual Program. Consulted were all issues from August 23, 1913 (the earliest available to the author) through the end of 1916, by which time Thanhouser was no longer releasing through the Mutual Program. Much information available nowhere else was thus located.

Reichler, Joseph L. (editor). The Baseball Encyclopedia, Seventh edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1988. Used for certain information pertaining to the 1913 World Series (as featured in the Thanhouser film, The Final Game) and for information pertaining to certain baseball players who were featured in the 1911 Thanhouser film, The Baseball Bug.

Rhode, Eric. A History of the Cinema From Its Origins to 1970. New York: Hill and Wang, 1976.

Richmonds Annual Directory of New Rochelle, Larchmont, Pelham and Mamaroneck. See Turners Annual Directory below.

(Salvini, Alessandro) Sources of information concerning the life of Alexander (Alessandro) Salvini include unattributed obituary notices preserved by Edwin Thanhouser in his personal scrapbook, and titled Salvini Is Off the Stage of Life, Death of Alexander Salvini, and, by cable to The Herald, Young Salvini Dead.

Slide, Anthony. The Big V: A History of the Vitagraph Company. Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1976; also the revised and expanded edition, 1987. Relates the history of the Vitagraph Company, lists prominent Vitagraph personalities, and lists of Vitagraph films. Information on certain Thanhouser personalities who also worked for Vitagraph was useful.

Slide, Anthony. Early American Cinema. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1971. An absorbing view of early film making, particularly from about 1900 to 1915.

Slide, Anthony. The Idols of Silence. South Brunswick and New York: A.S. Barnes, 1976. Contains information pertaining to Mignon Anderson, including information given to Anthony Slide in an interview.

Slide, Anthony. Unpublished interview with Victor Heerman, May 17, 1976, furnished to the author on September 14, 1987, with this comment: I am enclosing the first few pages of a very lengthy interview which I conducted with Victor. He is long dead. This is the only section which deals with Thanhouser. Given were Heermans recollections of the beginning of the Thanhouser enterprise in New Rochelle.

Smith, Albert E. Two Reels and a Crank. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1952. A principal figure in the Vitagraph enterprise gives his view of early film making.

Spehr, Paul C. The Movies Begin. Newark, New Jersey: The Newark Museum, 1977. A superb history of film production in New Jersey, with histories of the studios and biographies of key players involved.

Stagg, Jerry. The Brothers Shubert. New York: Random House, 1968. A biography of the Shubert family, particularly Sam S. and Lee, and their involvement in the theatre business in America.

Standard-Star, The. New Rochelle, New York. Various issues from the 1930s onward carried recollections of old-timers who had once worked with the Thanhouser studio as well as nostalgic articles on the early days of film making in the city.

Starman, Ray. James CruzeCinemas Forgotten Director. Article in Films in Review, October 1985. National Bord of Review of Motion Pictures, Inc., New York. A biographical sketch of Cruzes life, with emphasis on his films of the 1920s. Several film historians are quoted. This article elicited a response from Karl Brown, to whose article refer.

Stewart, William T., Arthur F. McClure, and Ken D. Jones. International Film Necrology. New York and London: Garland Publishing Company, 1981.

Storms, A.D. The Players Blue Book.Worcester, Massachusetts: Sutherland & Storms, Publishers, 1901. Among the biographical sketches are those of two players who later appeared in Thanhouser films: Vincent Serrano and Frederick B. Warde

Studio Directory of Motion Picture News, 1916. Published as a supplement to the January 29, 1916 issue of The Motion Picture News. This was the first comprehensive directory of motion picture personalities to be published in the United States.

Thanhouser, Edwin. Paintings Collected by Edwin Thanhouser. Wampage Shores, Sands Point, Port Washington, Long Island, New York. Privately printed by the author, 1941. Twenty-four page catalogue, with commentary, of the authors art collection. Fifty-two paintings are described. Printed by the Bar Press, Inc., 47 West Street, New York City.

Thanhouser, Lloyd F. The Thanhouser Family. Privately printed, 1970. A 56-page double-spaced, typed history of the family, with biographies of certain family members, and the authors recollections of years earlier and the stories related by his father, Edwin.

Thanhouser, Lloyd F. Reminiscences tape recorded on August 2, 1980, and loaned to the author by his son Edwin W.

Truitt, Evelyn Mack. Who Was Who on Screen, Third Edition. New York and London: R.R. Bowker Company, 1983. With brief biographies and filmographies of many actors and actresses once associated with Thanhouser, with life dates (provided in many instances by Bill H. Doyle).

Turners Annual Directory of New Rochelle, Larchmont and Pelham. (Name later changed to Richmonds Annual Directory of New Rochelle, Larchmont, Pelham and Mamaroneck. Yonkers, New York: W.L. Richmond, Publisher, Warburton Building. Editions 1909 through 1918. These directories, copies of which were furnished to the author by Rick Moody, form a valuable source for home addresses and alternative occupations of individuals once connected with the Thanhouser studio.

Warde, Frederick. Fifty Years of Make-Believe. Los Angeles: Times-Mirror Press, 1923. Contains two paragraphs summarizing the authors involvement with Thanhouser films.

Whos Who in the Lyceum. Edited by A. Augustus Wright. Philadelphia: Pearson Brothers, 1906. Contains several listings of stage actors who were later affiliated with Thanhouser; e.g., Frederick Warde.

Widen, Larry. Milwaukees Dime Museums, article in Milwaukee History magazine. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Milwaukee County Historical Society, Spring 1985. Gives information pertaining to very early theatres and amusement houses in Milwaukee, one of which was named The Nickelodeon. Newspaper clippings provided in separate correspondence with the author reveal that The Nickelodeon was located at 210 Grand Avenue in December 1897 but by March 1898 had relocated to Third Street above Grand Avenue. This evidence contradicts the widely-published claim that the nickelodeon term was first used in Pittsburgh in 1905.

Widen, Larry and Judi Anderson. Milwaukees Movie Palaces. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Milwaukee County Historical Society, 1986. The contained listing, Milwaukees Movie Theatres, includes the Academy of Music, of which at one time Edwin Thanhouser was manager, although this is not mentioned.

Widen, Larry. The Mutual Film Corporation: A History, 1905-1918. Copy of unpublished manuscript provided by the author in 1987. At the time it was slated for future publication in Marquee, journal of the Theatre Historical Society.

Wids Film and Film Folk. New York City: Wids Film and Film Folk, Inc. Wid Gunning, publisher. Issues of 1916 and 1917 provided reviews, most of which were negative, of Thanhouser films. The publication was fond of coining words, such as shero for she-hero, wun for one, willun for villain, etc. Wids use of some one has been changed to someone and worth while to worthwhile in the present text.

Wilson, Margery. James Cruze. Los Angeles: Chimes Press, 1220 Maple Avenue, 1928. Part of the Thumb Prints of the Famous series, this little booklet is a hagiographic sketch of Cruze by an obvious admirer, who explained away his every fault. Wilson was a fairly prominent actress, and also a director, who played Brown Eyes in Intolerance and who was William S. Harts leading lady.


Copyright © 1995 Q. David Bowers. All Rights served.